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Envíos 10057

Enviado - 26 diciembre 2007 :  17:23:12  Mostrar perfil  Responder con Cita
Bulgaria Pays Price of Outdated Education
Delaying reforms has ruined the quality of Bulgaria’s higher education,
and threatens to drag down the country’s economy

By Nikoleta Popkostadinova in Sofia
19 December 2007

Since Bulgaria began its transition to democracy and a market economy 17 years ago, a succession of governments have pledged to make education a key priority. There has been no shortage of legislation. Over 20 amendments to the laws and regulations relating to the country’s universities have been introduced in the past decade alone.

Yet many politicians and education experts admit that the changes have failed to alter the status quo, dating back to the 1970s. Instead, the tinkering with the old system has created a patchwork of a highly-centralized and conservative system, in which the government takes all the major decisions.

Evidence of this fiasco is witnessed daily. Recently a striking confession of failure came from Prime Minister Sergey Stanishev, who said: “We see that all the World Bank reports and foreign experts point to the drastic drop of quality in Bulgarian education. There is a need for immediate measures.”

As the problems persist, more and more business executives and economists are expressing concern that the shortcomings will produce a serious threat to the economic and social prosperity of the country in the coming decade.

"There are already cases of big foreign investors refusing to enter the Bulgarian market after researching the level of qualifications of the available labour force," says economist Georgi Ganev, Project Manager at the Centre for Liberal Strategies in Sofia.

Bulgaria has produced robust economic growth in the last decade during the run-up to joining the EU in January. However, economists argue that it will not be able to keep up with its competitors in the coming years when further advances in technology and management will demand a much more sophisticated educational system.

Higher education in Bulgaria is still following in the footsteps of its old communist-era model. The 36 state universities are fully dependent on state funding. The scale of the tuition fees and the number of students in each institution are also decided by government each year.

This form of centralization is extended to the institutions themselves. A university dean is elected for a period of four years by his staff, and he approves every single academic or financial decision – a system, which favours an authoritarian management style.

After a series of earlier half-hearted endeavours, this year yet another attempt at educational reform was launched – and failed.

In the spring the Minister of Education, Daniel Vulchev, offered a new strategy to allow universities to fix their own tuition fees and students numbers – below a certain limit, set by his ministry. He also proposed that each university should have a board of trustees to decide how its budget should be spent, thereby relaxing the dean’s tight grip on financial matters.

But the Socialist-led governing coalition rejected that strategy with the argument that a law for student credits needed to be drafted first. The Socialists committed themselves to draw up such a law by the end of 2007, but as of the middle of December, no draft has been submitted.

Closing a vicious circle around the problem, politicians have been reiterating that money should not be poured into the unreformed higher education sector - while being responsible for the poor state of that educational system themselves. Plamen Oresharski, the Minister of Finance, said: “It is unthinkable to allocate money from the budget surplus for a sector that is inefficient at spending it.”

After the longest-ever strike in Bulgaria - the seven-week teachers' protest in the first half of autumn - Stanishev renewed his claim that education was a high priority for his government. But this is not reflected in the budget for 2008. The money allocated to education is just 0.3% more than in 2007.

Bulgaria is in bottom place among the EU’s 27 members in the share of its budget spent on higher education, according to the EU’s statistical office, Eurostat. Its report, "Key Data on Higher Education in Europe", says Bulgaria’s planned expenditure on this sector accounts for only 0.83% of next year’s budget.

Worse than that, the statistics show that these relatively small sums of money are used inefficiently. According to Eurostat, the money Bulgaria spends per student, if adjusted for its purchasing power in the country, is as much as in other central and east European countries. But Bulgarian universities, alone in Europe, spend five times more on meals and accommodation than on research and development.

Experts say that the immediate consequence of the extreme centralization of management and poor allocation of resources is a drop in the quality of education. Sofia University “is weak, there are few adequate courses and even fewer capable professors. There are problems with money, textbooks, and equipment”, Ganev says about the situation at the oldest university in Bulgaria. “There is no relation to the labour market, we do not have data on graduate placements and salaries,” he says.

Ganev should know. He is a professor at Sofia University.

The students are no more satisfied. "The lectures are so depressing”, complains Anita Stoyanova, 22, who studies Computer Science. “If you look around you will see 20 computers, of 20 different brands and configurations, wretched desks, high ceilings, gloomy yellowish light, and a professor who speaks only of theory... And this is the most prestigious Bulgarian university."

One of the greatest flaws in the current system is that it thwarts any competition between the universities. Georgi Angelov, senior economist at the Open Society Institute in Sofia, says total dependence on state funding makes educational institutions feel complacent, and does not encourage them to compete for better staff, to modernize their programmes or bring their teaching methods up to date. University managers know that the number of applicants will always exceed the number of available places.

"There are no stimuli or an internal will for change," Angelov says. "Such a will can come only from outside since the people in the system will never bother with reforming themselves. The status quo is always reinforced by bureaucratic machines."

This set of problems, exacerbated by a severe and continuous brain-drain, puts Bulgaria in a detrimental position in relation to the rest of the EU economies.

During the last eight years the number of Bulgarians studying abroad has multiplied four-fold, according to Eurostat's report. Today 10% of Bulgarian students study outside their own country. The report says no other EU member, except Slovakia, comes near that level of student outflow.

There is little to keep Bulgarian students at home – as long as they can afford to study abroad. No Bulgarian university appears on the list of the world’s 500 best higher education institutions, compiled by Shanghai Jiao Tong University’s Institute of Higher Education.

After Bulgaria joined the EU in January, tuition fees for Bulgarians at universities in other EU countries dropped substantially. Experts predict that more Bulgarian students will join the educational exodus since Bulgarian universities cannot compete with their foreign counterparts.

“Bulgarian universities fail to provide modern education“, says Vahe Torosyan, Vice-President of Microsoft for Central and Eastern Eur#1086;pe, and adds: “We have to re-educate our IT specialists who have graduated after we hire them.“ He finds huge gaps in marketing and business education: “The big challenge is to find enough people to fit the profile you are looking for.“

Such concerns are deepened by recent statistical reports. When it comes to the status of human capital, the Lisbon Council, an independent centre for economic and social research, puts Bulgaria in the last-but-one position, just ahead of Poland, among the countries which joined the EU in 2004 and 2007, as well as EU candidates Turkey and Croatia. "There is no other resource that can pull states like Bulgaria out of their relatively poor economic situation, but their human capital,” the Lisbon Council’s report says.

But however deep-rooted the problem may be, Bulgarian politicians and university managements do not seem ready to launch a comprehensive reform. "Most probably this part of the public sector needs to see a bankruptcy," Angelov says with some scepticism. "Only then will it experience the inevitable reform as it happened to the Bulgarian economy at the end of the 1990s."

Nikoleta Popkostadinova is a regular BIRN contributor. In November 2007 she received the first annual award of the Balkan Fellowship for Journalistic Excellence, an initiative of Robert Bosch Stiftung and the ERSTE Foundation in cooperation with BIRN.



Envíos 10057

Enviado - 09 febrero 2008 :  00:27:13  Mostrar perfil  Responder con Cita
La Bulgarie veut reintroduire les cours de religion


Quarante ans après leur élimination, les cours de religion à l'école font de nouveau débat en Bulgarie.

"La proposition est de rendre obligatoire la religion pour les élèves de l'école primaire au lycée", explique Boiko Pentchev. "Il s'agirait de transmettre des connaissances portant sur différentes religions (avant tout sur la religion chrétienne), mais aussi de favoriser une meilleure compréhension à l'égard d'autres croyances. (...)

Un tel cours devrait fonctionner en parallèle avec une autre matière baptisée Ethique. Car il y a des parents qui refuseront d'envoyer leurs enfants en classes de religion et ils seront dans leur droit. Ils peuvent être athées ou de confession orthodoxe et ne pas accepter de visions profanes. Ils ont le droit de dire 'non', particulièrement dans un Etat qui a vécu l'amère expérience de l'endoctrinement au nom de certaines 'valeurs'".

Information publiée dans le journal Dnevnik.
Pour lire l'article complet en bulgare:

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Envíos 10057

Enviado - 11 febrero 2008 :  15:02:13  Mostrar perfil  Responder con Cita
Bulgarie: désaccord sur l'éducation religieuse obligatoire dans les écoles

Site du mensuel de l'Église protestante vaudoise

Les Bulgares n'arrivent pas à se mettre d'accord sur une proposition d'éducation religieuse obligatoire. Une proposition faite visant à faire de la religion une matière obligatoire pendant les sept premières années d'école, a suscité de fortes critiques tant de la part des milieux religieux que laïcs.

Ces dernières années, le pays - officiellement athée pendant les années communistes, mais dont la plupart des 7,7 millions d'habitants appartiennent à l'Eglise orthodoxe bulgare - autorise l'enseignement religieux comme matière optionnelle.

Une nouvelle proposition est étudiée par le Conseil public du ministère de l'Education et le ministre de l'Education.

Son objectif: que les élèves reçoivent des cours sur les différentes religions plutôt que sur une seule d'entre elles. Il s'agirait aussi de dispenser aux enfants un enseignement sur les questions éthiques, telles que le clonage et l'avortement.

Georgi Bakalov, président du Conseil, a déclaré devoir présenter un programme qui conviendrait à tous les enfants, quelle que soit leur religion, étant donné qu'il est illégal de faire une distinction entre élèves sur la base de leur religion.

Obligatoire pendant les sept premières années d'école, cette matière deviendrait optionnelle pour les quatre dernières années.

Réactions mitigées

Le métropolite Gavraïl, de l'Eglise orthodoxe bulgare, a estimé que les enfants issus d'une famille orthodoxe doivent étudier le christianisme orthodoxe, les musulmans étudier l'islam et les enfants d'athées étudier une matière similaire à celle proposée par le Conseil public.

L'adjoint du grand mufti des musulmans de Bulgarie, Vedat Ahmed, a déclaré que la religion devait bien être enseignée dans les écoles, mais sur la base des principes de la foi, de la moralité et du service.

Andrei Raïchev, professeur de sociologie, a affirmé que cette proposition n'avait aucun intérêt puisque seuls 25 % des Bulgares étaient croyants: «Ce qui va se produire avec cette proposition, c'est que les enfants vont marmonner en boucle les versets de l'Evangile comme ils répètent aujourd'hui des poésies. Aucune croyance morale n'en découlera».

Le ministre de l'Education a pour sa part assuré qu'aucune proposition concernant l'éducation religieuse dans les écoles ne serait adoptée avant qu'un consensus ait été trouvé.

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Envíos 10057

Enviado - 24 febrero 2008 :  21:09:47  Mostrar perfil  Responder con Cita
Classroom Blues (And Grays)
Teachers got some results after last fall’s strikes. But major problems remain in Bulgarian schools

by Nikoleta Popkostadinova
20 February 2008

SOFIA | At the German Language High School, the teachers’ lounge is a gloomy room with faded sofas, drab chairs, and dust-covered computers that no longer work. Time stopped here years ago.

Cement corridors with a patchwork of paint lead to the classrooms. While a few rooms have been smartly refurbished – complete with high-tech equipment and Internet access – most are antiquated. The night-and-day difference between facilities at the school depends on who is footing the bill. The German government paid for the modern classrooms.

Teachers and students face a daily struggle with aging or outdated resources, and not just at the German school, which is one of the most prestigious in the country. Its students routinely achieve some of the highest results on secondary-school exams.

The dilapidated conditions of public schools can be even more pronounced outside the capital.

“There are no investments in Bulgarian education,” said Diana Raycheva, vice principal of the German school. “And it is not just about the teachers’ wages. But it is also about the working environment. Look around. How do you expect anyone to come to work here?”

But it is not just buildings and equipment that are aging. The majority of Bulgaria’s primary and secondary teachers are on the older side of 40, and the age gap between students and educators continues to rise.

Several factors are cited for the graying of the teacher corps, not just the working environment in a profession that carried considerable prestige under communism. Higher wages and a declining jobless rate have lured younger, educated workers into the private sector. Younger, more mobile people have also sought educational and work opportunities abroad – a process made easier since Bulgaria joined the European Union in 2007 – raising the prospect of future shortages.

The health of the education system in this country of 7.3 million came to a head last September when thousands of public school teachers went on strike. Their demands included a doubling of wages and higher government spending on education. The strikes – which started in Sofia and spread to other cities – lasted almost seven weeks.

The teachers’ complaints were not without merit. A study by the Brussels-based Lisbon Council public policy group cites Bulgaria’s low investment in schools as one reason for their anemic academic performance. Bulgaria was ranked with neighboring Romania as the lowest in educational quality among the Central and Eastern European countries.

Bulgaria spends about 4.2 percent of its GDP on education, compared to 6 percent in Hungary, 5.7 percent in Estonia, and 4.6 percent in the Czech Republic. Romania spends 3.6 percent.

Education International, a federation of labor unions that supported the Bulgarian teachers’ walkout, reported last year that the country’s average monthly salary of 174 euros was the lowest in Europe. The average monthly salary for all jobs in Bulgaria at the end of 2007 was 220 euros.

The government, which at first seemed indifferent to the strikers’ demands, changed course and acknowledged the poor wages for teachers and crumbling conditions of schools. In October, Finance Minister Plamen Oresharski pledged major increases in spending for education, while Education Minister Daniel Valchev said the first step in the “huge task” of overhauling public education was a near doubling of the average teacher salary to 325 euros.

The Ministry of Education also agreed to give local jurisdictions the responsibility of distributing wage increases, a decision initially welcomed by the teachers. Since then, trade unions have threatened another walkout after ministry officials reported it could take some districts months to distribute higher salaries.


But heftier paychecks still may not be enough to entice a younger generation to a profession that has a reputation for being conservative and antiquated. “Success will go to those individuals and countries which are swift to adapt, slow to complain and open to change,” states the Lisbon Council’s “European Human Capital Index,” published in October. The same month, some 80,000 Bulgarian public school teachers were demanding more money.

“When a person is up to date, age is not a problem,” said Vyara Lazarova, director of the Bulgarian Parents Association, which opposed the teachers’ walkout. “But the case of the Bulgarian school is that teachers have a conservative attitude towards their profession. They are passive and discouraged.”

Along with the lack of technology, course materials in Bulgarian schools have changed little since the end of communism. Instruction continues to focus on memorization rather than intellectual challenge and practical learning. Educators say this environment discourages younger teachers or applicants who have had training or exposure to systems in other countries.

“There are no young people on our staff,” Raycheva said in an interview at the beginning of the school year. “The age gap between us and the pupils is huge already. We are falling far behind our own pupils.”

The vast majority of Bulgarian teachers – 66 percent – are over 40, according to the National Statistics Institute. Only 7 percent are under the age of 30. The graying of the profession is evident in a walk through the corridors of almost any school.

One literature teacher at the German High School lamented the lack of resources Bulgarian teachers have compared to those of German colleagues who work there, too. “We are so far behind our German colleagues here when it comes to technologies and means of teaching,” Marta Dgaleva said. “They have Internet, computers, projectors, laser printers, web cameras in all of their offices. The chemistry and biology laboratories they are responsible for look fantastic. All this money comes from the German government, not from the Bulgarian [authorities].”

Literature teacher Nora Kireva said conditions in schools discourage anyone who might want to become a teacher. At Sofia’s Dobri Voinikov 35th Secondary School, she said 100 other teachers share a single room for class preparation and breaks. “The most natural thing in this situation is young people to prefer well-equipped offices and decent conditions,” Kireva said.

The government’s pledge to spend more on education may help, but public schools may still fall short of recruiting enough employees, especially as older workers begin to retire in the next few years. Membership in the EU is also bringing more employment opportunities – but not in education. Raycheva and Dgaleva said that in recent years, companies and even public agencies have lured teachers away from the German school with better salaries and working conditions.

“The sad thing is that only the bad have stayed here or the very few who feel the profession as their vocation or duty,” Raycheva said, adding that those who stay sometimes have to take other jobs to make ends meet. “This means that we enter our classes with lower capacity, and our pupils are affected.”

Nikoleta Popkostadinova is a Sofia-based journalist with the weekly Capital newspaper.

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Envíos 10057

Enviado - 26 enero 2009 :  22:55:26  Mostrar perfil  Responder con Cita
Religione a scuola

Da Sofia, scrive Tanya Mangalakova

Da alcuni anni in Bulgaria si discute se inserire o meno l'insegnamento della religione tra le materie scolastiche. E' soprattutto la Chiesa Ortodossa Bulgara a caldeggiare l'introduzione della materia nel programma della scuola dell'obbligo, ma non mancano le voci contrarie

Da alcuni anni la società bulgara discute se inserire o meno l'insegnamento della religione tra le materie scolastiche. Per la Chiesa Ortodossa Bulgara (COB) le lezioni di religione a scuola dovrebbe essere obbligatoria, mentre per il Consiglio Sociale sulle Questioni relative all'Insegnamento Religioso vorrebbe che la materia fosse introdotto sotto forma di Storia delle Religioni. Al tempo stesso alcuni analisti e genitori ritengono che la religione non dovrebbe essere insegnata a scuola in nessuna forma, ricordando che l'istruzione in Bulgaria è laica.

Nonostante la campagna di raccolta di firme promossa dalla Chiesa in tutto il paese, quest'anno il tentativo di inserire obbligatoriamente la materia “Religione” nel programma è andato a vuoto. Il ministro dell'Istruzione Daniel Valchev ritiene che a causa della mancanza di consenso all'interno dell'opinione pubblica, l'insegnamento religioso non possa essere imposto ad alunni e studenti. Secondo Valchev, poi, introdurre una nuova materia potrebbe andare a detrimento delle altre. Al momento nel programma della scuola dell'obbligo in Bulgaria ci sono tre tipi di materie: obbligatorie, obbligatorie a scelta, facoltative.

La Chiesa Ortodossa Bulgara e le autorità religiose mussulmane chiedono che vengano introdotte ore di religione con la denominazione “Religione Ortodossa”, “Religione Islamica” e “Cultura religiosa”. Nel 2006 il Santo Sinodo della COB elaborò una proposta di inserimento della religione come preparazione obbligatoria per gli alunni della prima elementare a partire dall'anno scolastico 2008-9, nella quale veniva sottolineato il fatto che l'insegnamento della religione come materia obbligatoria a scelta o facoltativa non dava risultati visibili, visto che gli studenti le preferivano discipline come lingua e letteratura bulgara, matematica, lingue straniere ecc.

Secondo la chiesa in 20 dei paesi membri dell'UE nelle scuole si studia religione, e questo dimostra che in Europa questo non viene considerato in contraddizione con il carattere laico dell'istruzione. Secondo il progetto presentato dal Santo Sinodo “La santa Ortodossia, nelle sue specifiche espressioni particolari bulgare è un elemento costitutivo dell'identità nazionale, che ha giocato un ruolo di primaria importanza nel percorso storico del popolo bulgaro, contribuendo a salvaguardarlo in tutte le epoche storiche”. La chiesa propone che nei manuali scolastici si parli anche delle tradizioni e della cultura legata alle altre religioni storiche presenti in Bulgaria.

A febbraio del 2008 il metropolita di Plovdiv Nikolay ha tenuto nella sua città una lezione di religione ai bambini di seconda elementare nella scuola statale “Hristo Botev”. La lezione aperta è iniziata con la recita di una preghiera e l'introduzione ai simboli della tradizione cristiana. Anche il metropolita di Varna Kiril è molto attivo in questa campagna. Grazie a lui da cinque anni in una ventina di scuole elementari a Varna si studia religione con un corso denominato “Tradizioni e valori cristiani ortodossi”.

Per la Chiesa Ortodossa Bulgara l'introduzione della religione nei programmi scolastici è un tema così importante da essere stato uno dei temi centrali del sesto Consiglio Ecclesiastico-popolare, tenuto nell'ottobre 2008 nel monastero di Rila. L'alto clero ortodosso ha espresso i suoi timori che l'insegnamento della religione possa essere introdotto secondo un modello di tipo comparativo.

“Non abbiamo l'obiettivo di indottrinare, ma di dare informazioni sulla religione”, spiega il professor Georgi Balakov, direttore del Consiglio Sociale sulle Questioni relative all'Insegnamento Religioso. Balakov ritiene che l'insegnamento obbligatorio della religione contribuirà alla tolleranza tra i più giovani e aumenterà il loro livello culturale.

La professoressa Klimentina Ivanova, membro del Consiglio, ricorda che dopo la nascita del regime comunista, nel settembre del 1944, alcune generazioni di bulgari sono state educate a pensare che “la religione è l'oppio dei popoli”, ostacolo al progresso e arma nelle mani degli sfruttatori, colpevole della miseria del proletariato e delle masse contadine.

Anche i più decisi oppositori della fede sono stati costretti, seppure a denti stretti, ad ammettere che il percorso che ha portato la Bulgaria alla sua indipendenza, tra il XVIII e XIX secolo passa attraverso le lotte per ottenere una Chiesa Ortodossa Bulgara autocefala. Secondo la COB, se l'insegnamento della religione dovesse restare marginalizzato come materia facoltativa, i giovani sarebbero privati di nozioni religiose libere da pregiudizi, che ritiene un legame con l'inconscio collettivo e un ponte verso il passato del popolo bulgaro.

Analisti come il docente universitario Ivaylo Dichev definiscono antidemocratica e scandalosa l'introduzione obbligatoria della religione nelle scuole. Secondo Dichev questa nuova materia sarebbe l'equivalente di un nuovo comunismo scientifico, che avrebbe l'obiettivo di bloccare i meccanismi del pensiero critico, piuttosto che di svilupparlo. La religione, conclude Dichev, non dovrebbe essere studiata nella scuola pubblica, ma nei corsi di catechismo organizzati dalla stessa chiesa.

Anche alunni e studenti sono divisi rispetto alla proposta di introdurre la religione a scuola. Dal 1997 in molte scuole bulgare la religione è stata introdotta prima come materia facoltativa, e poi come obbligatoria a scelta. In molti di questi istituti la materia è uscita poi dai programmi a causa dell'eccessivo carico di lavoro per gli studenti, come ad esempio nella 126° Scuola Elementare di Sofia. Qui i pochi teenagers che hanno seguito le lezioni di religione in quarta e quinta elementare ricordano poco o nulla di quanto studiato.

Elena e la sua amica Megi sono categoriche, quando dicono di non volere le ore di religione, visto che già faticano a prepararsi nelle restanti materie scolastiche. Quest'anno Elena e Megi finiranno le scuole dell'obbligo e si preparano a candidarsi ai licei della capitale. Dicono di essere già molto stanche, visto che ogni giorno seguono sei o sette materie, e che un impegno ulteriore sarebbe tutt'altro che benvenuto.

La loro compagna di scuola Nikol, invece, anche lei di 13 anni, dice di ricordare le lezioni di religione seguite alcuni anni fa come interessanti. Se si dovessero reintrodurre, dovrebbero essere obbligatorie, dice Nikol. Altrimenti nessuno sceglierebbe di seguirle. “I ragazzi come noi hanno bisogno di questo tipo di insegnamento, per non rischiare di diventare dei falliti”, sostiene Nikol.


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Envíos 10057

Enviado - 27 julio 2009 :  00:38:26  Mostrar perfil  Responder con Cita
«Les Roms exclus», une étude sociologique sur trois ans

Ivelina Vatova
Version française: Kréména Sirakova
Juillet 23, 2009

Dans le monde globalisé d’aujourd’hui il devient de plus en plus évident que l’éducation est un facteur clef pour la prospérité des individus. D’où sa priorité pour la société. Quels sont les modèles que devrait adopter l’administration en charge de l’éducation en Bulgarie pour assurer un accès réel à l’enseignement pour tous les enfants et en particulier de ceux issus des communautés minoritaires. C’est la réponse que devrait apporter le projet d’étude intitulée «Vers une désegrégation de l’école bulgare: les politiques d’éducation et les technologies sociales sensées aider à surmonter l’exclusion des roms», réalisée par une équipe de sociologues sous la direction du prof. Nikolay Tilkidjiev, de l’Université de Sofia pendant la période 2005-2008 et financé par le Fonds national de recherches scientifiques du ministère de l’Education et des Sciences.

«Pourquoi avons-nous choisi ce thème pour notre projet? Chaque année en Bulgarie entre 20 et 30 mille enfants roms quittent l’école. Très vite ils se retrouvent sur le marché du travail sans formation et sans aucune qualification et renflouent l’armée des personnes marginalisées. Chômeurs et sans revenus, du coup ils deviennent une véritable bombe à retardement pour la société.»

Une des raisons essentielles de l’exclusion des jeunes roms de l’école est la pauvreté de leurs familles, mais il existe une autre raison aussi, l’absence d’écoles dans les petites localités, où vivent souvent beaucoup de Roms. Bien qu’il s’agisse d’un projet d’étude qui porte uniquement sur l’exclusion des enfants roms, toute la société multiculturelle et multiethnique bulgare en est concernée.

«Nos recommandations vont dans deux sens: quelles politiques concrètes devraient être développées pour surmonter cet énorme déficit de notre société, explique le prof. Tilkidjiev. L’expression «intégration des Roms dans la société» n’aurait aucun effet dans la réalité si la politique qui s’en inspire n’est pas accompagnée d’actions pratiques soutenues par l’Etat. Jusqu’à présent l’Etat participe à de nombreuses initiatives, mais son approche est souvent formaliste. S’il vous arrive à jeter un coup d’œil sur les sites des ministères, et en particulier du ministère du travail, vous serez impressionnés par le nombre des projets qui existent. Mais leur effet est nul car ils ont un caractère de campagne. La majorité de ces projets sont réalisés dans le cadre de l’initiative européenne et sont formellement conformes aux critères de l’UE et de la Décennie de l’inclusion des Roms 2005–2015. Ce sont pour la plupart des initiatives sporadiques réalisées par diverses fondations consistant notamment à organiser le transport des enfants à l’école d’un village à l’autre. De telles mesures provisoires ne peuvent pas remplacer les politiques permanentes qui sont du devoir de l’Etat.

Dans le recueil Les Roms exclus qui est le résultat de trois ans de travail des sociologues, sont cités des exemples concrets de bonnes pratiques dans les pays de l’Europe de l’Est, notamment en Roumanie, en Hongrie, en Slovaquie et en Tchéquie ainsi que des idées et des initiatives développées aux USA pour lutter contre la l’exclusion des minorités raciales ethniques des écoles, sans oublier les analyses du Centre européen des droits des Roms.

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