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Envíos 10057

Enviado - 16 mayo 2008 :  19:53:15  Mostrar perfil  Responder con Cita
Learn to Forget
Reformers say rote learning is holding Macedonian students down

by Ljubica Grozdanovska
TOL - Open Society Education News
28 April 2008

SKOPJE | Ivana’s homework has a familiar refrain: she memorizes lessons from physics, chemistry, math, and history classes. She does this until her head aches, she complains, “and that’s why I hate these subjects.”

Ivana, a first-year student at Nikola Karev High School, says her teachers require that lessons be memorized without demonstrating what they are learning. She also says her teachers show little passion for what they are teaching.

“I’m used to memorizing most of the subjects because we don’t have practice work at school. So, for instance, I learn about sulfuric acid, but I can’t see its chemical reaction in practice. Or, I learn about some formula in physics, but I can’t tell you how to get to it,” said Ivana, 15.

A recent study of literacy in Macedonia suggests that Ivana – and other students interviewed for this article – have a point. The testing showed that most Macedonian students have difficulty understanding and retaining what they read. The Ministry of Education and Science conducted the testing as part of the Progress in International Reading Literacy Study, which is backed by the International Association for the Evaluation of Educational Achievement, a grouping of educational researchers and institutions.

Results of two phases of the study in 2001 and 2006 show little improvement in Macedonia. According to tests given to 4,000 fourth-graders in 150 schools in 2006, the average score of the students in Macedonia was 442, compared with the 40-nation survey average of 500. The testing was simple. Experts had the students read two lessons from their books. Afterwards, they closed their books and were questioned about the content of the lessons. Only a few of the students were able to explain what they had read.

Pupils from all other European countries that took part did better, including those from a half-dozen other former communist states.

A companion survey showed similar poor performance in mathematics. According to the Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study, Macedonian students from the 150 elementary schools ranked 30th out of 40 countries involved. The Macedonian students’ average score was 435, below the international average of 467. Only 40 of the students scored above the international average.

The Macedonian government and international organizations like UNICEF have pointed to problems in the quality of education, particularly among rural, poor and Romani communities, as a detriment to the country’s advancement. Critics say the education system still suffers from the legacy of Yugoslav communism, when individualism was discouraged and challenging a teacher would bring harsh reprimands. Until very recently, little had changed in examination methods from decades ago.

Read the complete article at http://www.tol.cz/look/TOL/article.tpl?IdLanguage=1&IdPublication=4&NrIssue=266&NrSection=1&NrArticle=19572&tpid=68


Envíos 10057

Enviado - 23 febrero 2009 :  23:25:10  Mostrar perfil  Responder con Cita
Macedonia school segregated over ethnic fights

February 10, 2009

SKOPJE, Macedonia: A string of clashes between Macedonian and ethnic Albanian schoolchildren prompted education officials to institute segregated classes in a small town on Tuesday.

Education Minister Pero Stojanovski said the introduction of different shifts for schoolchildren of different ethnicities at the high school in Struga was necessary for teenagers' safety.

About a dozen pupils have been hurt in violence at the school over the past few weeks.

School principal Mare Bojcevska-Saveska said the measure would not hurt inter-ethnic relations in Struga, a town of about 35,000 about 120 miles (190 kilometers) southwest of the capital, Skopje, and dominated by ethnic Albanians, a minority in most of the country.

About a quarter of Macedonia's 2.1 million people are ethnic Albanians.

The tiny Balkan country came to the brink of civil war along ethnic lines in 2001, when Albanian rebels fought a six-month insurgency against government forces that ended with international mediation. Ever since, the two communities have lived an uneasy coexistence.

Many parents and teachers criticized the government's decision — set to remain in effect until the end of the school year in June — arguing segregation would fuel ethnic tension.

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Envíos 10057

Enviado - 29 septiembre 2009 :  01:17:13  Mostrar perfil  Responder con Cita
Macedonian Professor Borce Davitkovski

By Marina Stojanovska
Southeast European Times in Skopje

In an exclusive interview with SETimes, Borce Davitkovski discusses the effects of reforms on his law school, and in Macedonia under the Bologna system.

Professor Borce Davitkovski is one of Macedonia's leading legal experts and dean of the law faculty at the country's biggest and oldest academic institution - St. Cyril and Methodius University. He is the author of five law textbooks and over 70 professional papers.

In an exclusive interview with SETimes, Davitkovski discusses the effects of reforms on his law school, and in Macedonia under the Bologna system - which strives to make academic degree standards and quality assurance standards more comparable and compatible throughout Europe.

SETimes: How did the introduction of the credit transfer system in your school affect the quality of studies?

Dean Borce Davitkovski: The change influenced positively the manner of studying by students. Simply put, the amphitheatres and classrooms became full again. Students study continuously during the entire academic year and participate in training. The former ad hoc learning and cramming for exams are over with.

Prior to introducing credit transfers, completing the studies at the law faculty lasted a long time, perhaps seven and a half years on average. Now, over 70% of students advance to the next academic year and the period leading to graduation is reduced.

However, a negative aspect of this system is that it does not have the classical oral exams; students can finish the three-year study without saying a word, and get the minimum passing grade only on the basis of written tests, essays and projects. This is an insufficient way to express knowledge by a future layer. All our efforts are concentrated to overcome this problem on the masters' level and we will constantly emphasise the students' practical knowledge and oral communication.

SETimes: Does the new system make Macedonian students closer to their European colleagues?

Davitkovski: Yes, they can now register or continue their studies at any European or American university. Because an established system of studies' evaluation through the credits already exists, diploma validations now take place much faster.

SETimes: Which aspects of the law are the Macedonian students most interested in?

Davitkovski: As a rule, they are interested in courses concerning judicature and classical legal subjects, but lately the law of the European states -- financial law, administrative law, public administration and business law, international law -- have become popular.

SETimes: Has the Law Faculty evidence about how many graduates work as lawyers?

Davitkovski: So far we did not have any legal obligation to collect such information and we do not have the statistics. That is why in the law faculty's new acts adopted at the beginning of the academic year foresee forming a lawyers' alumni association made up of our graduates, through which we can find out where they are employed. Also, our aim is to engage them to improve the existing and create new study plans and programmes akin to those in the US.

SETimes: Do you have an exchange programmes for students and professors with some of the well-known law schools abroad?

Davitkovski: For over 15 years, we have an established exchange programme for professors and students with the Moscow State University "Lomonosov", which is among the fifth leading European universities. We also have established mostly a professor exchange programme with the law faculties of the state universities in Zagreb, Ljubljana, Maribor, Belgrade, Nish, Sofia, as well as in France and the US.

SETimes: Is the best way to improve the quality of higher education through increasing the number of universities, which creates competition?

Davitkovski: We are not afraid of competition but unfair competition from public universities worries us. Although there are 12-13 public and several private law faculties, the interest in applying to our school is such that there are three candidates for one available place. We will continue to invest in the quality of instruction, especially in the instructors' professionalism and competence, which sets us apart from others which do not have any doctors of law to teach. However, the government should seriously consider which public law faculties it will support. We compare our school to the top 100 law faculties in the world, and are not worried about the number and quality of competing law schools in Macedonia.

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Envíos 10057

Enviado - 16 noviembre 2009 :  23:15:38  Mostrar perfil  Responder con Cita
Macédoine: l’école bilingue de la réconciliation

Par Mariela Trajkovska
Dnevnik, 26 octobre 2009
Traduit par Viktor Zakar
Lundi 2 novembre 2009

Une école bilingue a ouvert ses portes aux alentours de Tetovo. Les enfants y apprennent le macédonien et l’albanais, ainsi que les traditions propres à chaque culture. Ce projet, pionnier dans la région, suscite beaucoup d’espoir pour la réconciliation des communautés albanaise et macédonienne. D’autres projets similaires devraient bientôt voir le jour dans la région.

Les enfants de la première école intégrée du village Preljubiš, aux alentours de Tetovo, apprendront les langues macédonienne et albanaise grâce aux jeux et à l’enseignement informel. Cet enseignement se déroulera chaque jour après la fin des cours habituels.

En entrant dans l’école, on entend le brouhaha des écoliers macédoniens et albanais. Ce sont les élèves des première et deuxième classe, qui parlent entre eux les deux langues, et vous saluent, partout dans l’école et dans la cour, d’un «Dobar den» en macédonien et d’un «Miredita» en albanais pour «bonjour», et par «Diten e mire» en albanais et «Dogledanje» en macédonien pour «au revoir».

C’est le quotidien d’Arta, Angela, Mihaela, Mirushe, Robert, Driton... et des quelques quarante enfants qui fréquentent la première école intégrée bilingue du village Preljubište, où l’utilisation du macédonien et de l’albanais ne provoque pas de divisions ni de tensions. Bien au contraire, l’utilisation des deux langues rapproche ici les deux communautés.

Financé par le ministère des Affaires étrangères de Norvège par le biais de l’ONG Nansen Dialogue-Centre, ce projet a été mis en place il y a 2 ans à Preljubište, et prouve que la vie commune dans les zones post-conflictuelles peut fonctionner différemment. Ainsi, l’éducation permet de rassembler les enfants, au lieu de les séparer en les plaçant dans des établissements d’enseignement différents . Menée par le directeur Sašo Stojkovski, l’équipe au cœur du projet de l’école intégrée bilingue est fière de sa réussite. Sans aucun doute, ce projet représente l’avenir de l’éducation dans toute société multiethnique, selon eux.

L’OSCE a également proposé un projet pour une nouvelle politique d’éducation, qui devra intégrer toutes les communautés ethniques et supprimer les préjuges. Ce nouveau projet sera aussi probablement soutenu par le Gouvernement.

Apprendre une deuxième langue en jouant

Les enfants apprennent les deux langues dans un «enseignement informel», qui a lieu chaque jour après les cours habituels. Les institutrices Elizabeta Stamenkovska et Linda Jashari enseignent aux enfants la langue de leurs camarades à travers plusieurs sections: sciences humaines, sciences, arts, théâtre, mathématiques, écologie et «paix et tolérance». Les enfants jouent, dessinent ensemble, et apprennent à se connaître. Pour les enfants, il n’est pas étrange que leur meilleur copain ou copine appartienne à l’autre communauté.

Pendant le cours, il n’y a pas de traduction d’une langue à l’autre. Au moyen de paraphrases, Elizabeta explique ce que Linda dit et inversement. Les enfants écoutent les deux langues, apprennent de nouveaux mots, et participent activement à l’enseignement.

«Le programme informel est en corrélation avec le programme régulier, mais se distingue par le fait qu’il se déroule dans des groupes mixtes et bilingues. Par exemple, lorsque les enfants dessinent un objet, ils entendent plusieurs fois par jour le nom de cet objet en macédonien et en albanais. Ainsi, les enfants apprennent la deuxième langue.

Pendant le cours de maths, ils apprennent les chiffres. En sciences humaines, ils étudient les deux cultures, leurs coutumes, leurs traditions et leurs costumes traditionnels. Pendant les fêtes de Veligden (Pâques) et de Bajram, ils se rendent visite les uns aux autres afin de participer aux coutumes et ressentir, dans une atmosphère familiale, ce que ces dernières symbolisent. À l’école, on célèbre tous les anniversaires avec des chansons en macédonien, albanais et anglais», explique Stojkovski.

Lisez l'article complet à http://balkans.courriers.info/article13921.html
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