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Envíos 10057

Enviado - 11 septiembre 2007 :  13:44:57  Mostrar perfil  Responder con Cita
Bosnian Croats in Last-ditch Fight against Education Reform
New Education Law brings international recognition for Bosnian university degrees,
but numerous critics say reforms either jeopardize ethnic rights or do not go far enough

By Saida Mustajbegovic in Sarajevo
Balkan Insight
06 09 2007

The Association of Bosnian Croat Intellectuals, HIZ, on Wednesday said the recently adopted higher education law was unconstitutional and demanded that Bosnian Croat politicians launch legal proceedings to undo this long-awaited reform.

"If there is a national interest in any area, it is in higher education, especially when such an unconstitutional law is adopted - full of regulations that seriously jeopardize the survival of the University in [west] Mostar in its current shape and structure,“ HIZ president Ivan Pavlovic told a news conference on Wednesday.

Pavlovic’s comments were the latest in a string of criticism direct at this crucial reform. After months of political bickering, the authorities in Bosnia and Herzegovina finally approved a new Higher Education Law at the end of July, making it possible for Bosnian students to have their qualifications recognised in the 40-odd countries that have signed up to the Council of Europe’s Bologna Declaration.

Although the new law has been welcomed by Bosnia’s international partners, education experts and student activists say it retains key flaws from the old system, and cements disunity within Bosnia’s higher education sector by failing to provide for a nationwide system of funding.

Bosnia’s higher education reform was held hostage for almost three years by local politicians who appeared ready to sacrifice crucial reform to preserve their political and financial control over education.

In the meantime, Bosnian students continued their progress through the current expensive, ineffective and internationally-unrecognized education system.

This will now change as Bosnia joins the European Higher Education Area, inaugurated by the Bologna Declaration.

“This is the best possible news for over 100,000 students and staff of higher education institutions in the country,” said the international community’s top official in Bosnia, High Representative Miroslav Lajcak, immediately after the voting in parliament on 30 July.

“I’m glad to see that political leaders and parties have displayed a sense of responsibility by taking steps to ensure the future of all the citizens in this country,” Lajcak said.

While the international community has welcomed this breakthrough, some local and international experts point out that the newly-adopted law is the result of a political compromise, and as such, it needs further improvements.

Many insist that the new law should be seen only as the first step in the long-awaited reform of education.

The old Yugoslav-era higher education system, already considered outdated in the late 1980s, was thrown into chaos during the 1992-95 war in Bosnia.

After the war, the fragmentation of the education sector was formalised when the country was divided into two entities – Republika Srpska, RS, and the mainly Bosniak and Croat Federation of Bosnia.

Higher education was left to be regulated by entity laws, and within the Federation the complexity was only increased with responsibility for the sector being devolved to each of the 10 cantons.

The confusion has been further exacerbated by the opening of private universities which are poorly regulated.

Bosnia’s parliament first discussed the higher education draft law in 2004, but it was rejected, due to opposition from the nationalist Bosnian Croat Democratic Union, HDZ.

The HDZ insisted on retaining the funding and management of higher education at entity level, arguing that any other option would threaten the independence, or even the survival, of the Bosnian Croat University in west Mostar.

Pavlovic’s most recent comments indicate that, although changed and softened, the new law is still seen as a threat to what is perceived as a key Bosnian Croat national interest.

These and similar attitudes have from the very beginning made the higher education law a battleground for local politicians. The fighting was focused on two key issues – the financing and accreditation of universities.

Because of this petty in-fighting, two years ago Bosnia lost a soft loan, worth US $12 million, offered by the World Bank for the implementation of agreed reforms.

The current law in its original form was submitted by the Bosnian Council of Ministers to parliament for urgent adoption in June 2006, but it took over a year of further arguments before it was finally passed.

As part of the compromise, the law stipulates the establishment of a state-level agency to formulate across-the-board standards for higher educational institutions, while the entity and cantonal authorities will remain in charge of licensing the operation of individual universities.

It envisages the state taking a role in financing scientific research, while the universities themselves will be funded on the entity level in the case of RS and on the level of cantons in the Federation.

The law has had a mixed reception.

Momcilo Novakovic, a deputy of the opposition Serbian Democratic Party in the Bosnian parliament’s House of Representatives, told Banja Luka daily Nezavisne novine that, while “the law was necessary”, the “issues of jurisdiction and powers” remained unclear to him.

Novakovic also expressed concern about whether the universities’ autonomy might be undermined by the new law.

For the governing coalition, Sefik Dzaferovic, a deputy of the mainly Bosniak Democratic Action Party, was in no doubt that the legislation “ensures the universities’ autonomy, the mobility of students and teaching staff”, and that “the same standards are introduced in all institutions of higher education”.

Professor Zlatko Lagumdzija, President of the opposition Social Democratic Party, SDP, complained that the law lacks clarity and introduces meaningless provisions.

As an example, Lagumdzija stressed that having a state agency setting its own educational standards and system of accreditation is pointless since those standards stem from the Bologna Declaration.

“A copy-and-paste approach would do,” said the SDP leader. “What they need is a good professional translation team and good archiving team that would scan and record everything taking place at various universities in the accreditation process.”

Potentially the biggest problem, in Lagumdzija’s view, is the new structure of the universities’ management boards because at least two-thirds of their members are to be appointed by the founders of each institution.

That will allow the ruling political parties in RS and in the Federation’s cantons to extend their control over publicly-financed universities in their respective areas.

Bosnia has eight publicly-funded and at least five private universities.

By contrast, in 1992 there was only one university in the country.

Lamija Tanovic, a member of several expert groups for the implementation of the Bologna Declaration, says the law finally adopted is worse than any of the previous 15 drafts.

Two months before the legislation went through, she warned that Bosnia would be better off without a state law on higher education than with the draft that was about to be approved.

She believes that passing the law only served the purpose of meeting the formal requirements of the Bologna Declaration and the European Union’s Stabilisation and Association Agreement for western Balkan countries that want to join the EU at some stage in the future.

Saida Mustajbegovic is a Balkan Insight contributor. Balkan Insight is BIRN`s online publication.



Envíos 10057

Enviado - 17 mayo 2008 :  01:35:13  Mostrar perfil  Responder con Cita
Association "Education builds Bosnia and Herzegovina"

Association "Education builds Bosnia and Herzegovina", in Sarajevo, is established in 1994 year as a non-government, not political and unprofitable organization with mission slogan - children as a war victims are our constant responsibility. There are more than 30.000 children without one parent and more than 2.500 children without both parents in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Those children need help to overcome vigorous consequences of war traumas in 1992-1995 war years. Our global aim is to contribute building of Bosnia and Herzegovina thru moral, psycho-social and material help given to children whose parents died in battle, civil victims of war, invalid and talented children to help them by attending acknowledged schools and such becoming the useful members of our society.


Association "L'éducation construit la Bosnie-Herzégovine"

L'association "L'éducation construit la Bosnie-Herzégovine" de Sarajevo, a été fondée en 1994 comme une organisation non gouvernementale, non politique, multinationale et à but non lucratif, dont la mission est les enfants des victimes tuées pendant la guerre-c’est notre souci permanent. En BosnieHerzégovine il y a plus de 30.000 enfants avec un seul parent et environ 2.500 enfants sans parents qui ont besoin d’aide pour pouvoir surmonter les graves conséquences dues à la guerre de 1992-1995. Notre objectif global est la participation à la reconstruction de la Bosnie-Herzégovine à travers un soutien moral, psychosocial et matériel aux enfants dont les parents ont été tués pendant la guerre, aux enfants handicapés, aux jeunes talents, et l’établissement des conditions pour qu’ils puissent finir leurs études et devenir de bons citoyens.

+ info: http://www.ogbh.com.ba/en/index.html
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Envíos 10057

Enviado - 30 diciembre 2008 :  21:23:19  Mostrar perfil  Responder con Cita
Tutti pazzi per Bologna

Da Mostar, scrive Dario Terzic'

Il sistema universitario bosniaco nella transizione. Nuovi centri, nuove facoltà e un diverso rapporto con le università straniere. Il problema del reperimento dei docenti e dei costi di iscrizione

Come studiare in Bosnia Erzegovina oggi? Forse come nel resto del mondo, o almeno dell'Europa. Negli ultimi due anni qui non si fa che parlare del processo di Bologna. Anche se molti ancora non hanno capito di cosa si tratta. Ma quanto sono cambiate le università in Bosnia in questi ultimi anni? Com'era la situazione prima della guerra? Molto diversa?

Il famoso concetto della transizione vale anche per la vita studentesca. Il sistema socialista è morto da anni, e c'è tanta confusione per capire come dovrebbe funzionare il nuovo sistema. Dappertutto si sente parlare di apertura al business, e questo settore non fa eccezione.

Un percorso di studio “normale” in Bosnia dura quattro anni. Era così anche prima della guerra, solo che gli studi di medicina duravano cinque e oggi sono minimo sei anni. Il sistema era abbastanza rigoroso. Entro settembre dovevi passare tutti gli esami, senza la possibilità di portare un esame nell'anno successivo. Molte delle materie erano politicamente “colorate”. Così in tutte le facoltà si studiavano sia marxismo che Difesa nazionale generale. C'erano però anche tanti benefici, come borse di studio e prestiti (mutui) per gli studenti. Uno si prendeva il mutuo, che corrispondeva grosso modo a un terzo dello stipendio medio, e doveva sdebitarsi dopo aver finito l'università. Quelli con i voti migliori erano liberati anche da questo obbligo. Poi è arrivata la guerra, e i debiti studenteschi si sono persi per sempre.

Il sistema universitario in Jugoslavia era abbastanza centralizzato. C'erano i grandi centri, come Belgrado, Zagabria, Sarajevo, Lubiana... E poi università più piccole nelle sedi regionali. Ad esempio in Bosnia Erzegovina c'erano solo quattro università: Sarajevo, Mostar, Tuzla e Banja Luka. Anche qui c'era una certa centralizzazione. A Mostar ad esempio si potevano studiare solo economia e commercio, giurisprudenza, ingegneria (meccanica ed edile) agricoltura e pedagogia. Gli studi di medicina, lingue straniere, scienze politiche ed arte erano solo a Sarajevo. A parte queste quattro università, in Bosnia c'erano pochissime città con delle facoltà, come Zenica, Br#269;ko e Biha#263;. La collaborazione con le università straniere era scarsa. Se c’erano borse di studio (sempre pochissime) finivano sempre agli studenti di Zagabria o Belgrado, dove c'erano le ambasciate e i consolati. I ragazzi della Bosnia ed Erzegovina potevano studiare all'estero solo se erano figli di diplomatici o della borghesia comunista.

Dopo la guerra, la situazione cambia. Arriva un gran decentramento nel sistema educativo, anche in conseguenza delle tantissime divisioni. I ragazzi serbi e croati vanno sempre meno a studiare a Sarejevo. In Republika Srpska, Banja Luka diventa un vero grande centro universitario. Sarajevo è sempre il centro della maggioranza bosgnacca, mentre Mostar ovest lo diventa per i croato bosniaci. “Sveu#269;iliste“ di Mostar ovest è l'unica università in Bosnia Erzegovina dove si può studiare in “lingua croata”. Allo stesso tempo aprono facoltà anche nelle piccole città. Široki Brijeg, Fo#269;a, Trebinje… Cresce così anche il numero degli studenti. E' un po difficile trovare dati attendibili. Secondo alcuni, tuttavia, nel 1996 in Bosnia Erzegovina c'erano 36.000 studenti. Oggi solo l'Università di Sarajevo ne conta 55.000.

Prima della guerra studiare era gratis. Oggi ci sono gli studenti cosiddetti “ordinari”, in numero limitato, che sono quelli che pagano poco. Poi ci sono gli studenti cosiddetti “dopo la riga” dell'esame di ammissione. E quelli pagano… 1.200 marchi convertibili (circa 600 euro) all'anno. Le facoltà fanno un gran business. Ad esempio la sezione di giornalismo della facoltà di scienze politiche di Sarajevo, prima della guerra, al primo anno aveva tra i 30 e i 40 studenti. Oggi sono 300, che pagano. E' un po' difficile organizzare l'educazione per un numero così alto di studenti. Ma sembra che ultimamente le facoltà a questo pensino poco. L'importante è guadagnare. E poi, quanti studenti andranno avanti, cosa riusciranno ad imparare, è un problema loro. In questo modo vengono abbassati molti standard. Il numero di studenti è cresciuto tantissimo, mentre il numero degli insegnanti rimane lo stesso. Ne risente la qualità del processo scolastico. Poi è successa un'altra cosa. Dato che tantissime facoltà sono nate durante la guerra o nel primo periodo postbellico, era un gran problema trovare i docenti, professori veri. Così oggi in Bosnia ad insegnare ci sono moltissime persone senza master o dottorato. Ci sono stati casi in cui i docenti avevano solo il diploma. Però c'era sempre una giustificazione: hanno lavorato “sul campo” - ad esempio attori, pittori, interpreti senza laurea e altri. Strano, ma succedeva che gli studenti avevano “più scuola” dei docenti stessi. La scusa per tutta questa situazione erano le “condizioni particolari”, il dopoguerra, il fatto che i veri esperti se ne erano andati ecc. Tutto questo ha prodotto nuove problematiche. Gli standard più bassi hanno come conseguenza il fatto che tantissimi studenti passano gli esami con una minima conoscenza della materia. Si parla di corruzione, di esami e lauree vendute. Si parla di protesta ogni tanto, ma finisce lì. Ci sono storie famose sul tale esame di matematica, che costa duemila marchi, e cosi via. Succede di tutto ma mancano le prove.

Dopo la guerra, in Bosnia sono nate anche le prime università private, come quella del professor Gani#263;, l'Università americana ecc. E la situazione, rispetto alla possibilità di studiare all'estero, è ben cambiata. Adesso le ambasciate e i consolati sono anche in Bosnia. Non mancano le fondazioni, organizzazioni non governative e simili che possono rappresentare degli agganci per i bosniaci che vogliono studiare all'estero. Molti vanno via a studiare, e poi non tornano più a casa. Altri tornano, ma trovano difficoltà per il riconoscimento delle lauree. A volte si tratta di sistemi universitari molto diversi, e così la laurea americana, ad esempio, non sempre vale in Bosnia Erzegovina. Ci sono università molto strane dove i ragazzi bosniaci vanno per studiare un anno, subito dopo la scuola superiore, e non ci sono esami ma solo tesi scritte. Poi, dopo un anno, uno torna in Bosnia con il “master”. Anche per questo nascono problemi nel riconoscimento delle lauree. Per anni le lauree bosniache non venivano riconosciute all'estero. Ma con la famosa “Bolonjska deklaracija”, la Dichiarazione di Bologna, come la chiamano qui, dovrebbe cambiare molto e i nuovi laureati bosniaci saranno riconosciuti in tutta Europa. Ma per adesso, sembra che “Bologna“ abbia creato tantissima confusione. Il sistema del “punteggio degli esami” non e’ stato ancora ben compreso da queste parti.

La guerra è finita anni fa. Le cose cambiano, ma lentamente. Dovrà passare un po' di tempo anche per questa ennesima transizione, per capire come studiare in questo Paese. E soprattutto perché farlo, dato il livello della disoccupazione...

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Envíos 10057

Enviado - 29 marzo 2009 :  22:37:45  Mostrar perfil  Responder con Cita
Conferencia en Bosnia recalca la educación como prioridad en el proceso paz

El Confidencial, Madrid

Sarajevo, 13 mar (EFE).- La educación de los niños debe ser la prioridad en los futuros procesos y acuerdos de paz en el mundo, según el principal mensaje divulgado en una conferencia internacional en Sarajevo sobre la educación para contribuir a la paz en zonas de conflicto bélico.

La conferencia, iniciada el pasado miércoles y que termina hoy, se llama "Allá donde comienza la paz: el papel clave de la educación para una paz duradera", y culmina una campaña global de un año organizada por la alianza internacional "Save the Children".

Esa campaña centrada en facilitar educación a los menores que viven en las regiones de conflicto, contó con el apoyo de más de 30 premios Nobel de la Paz y otras personalidades públicas del mundo.

Las conclusiones y recomendaciones de la Conferencia de Sarajevo serán presentadas a debate en la Asamblea General de la ONU, previsiblemente en marzo, sobre situaciones de crisis, conflictos, catástrofes naturales y otros escenarios que impiden a los niños acudir a la escuela.

Los premios Nobel de la Paz Desmond Tutu, Mairead Maguire y Rigoberta Menchú, se dirigieron a los participantes de la Conferencia mediante un vídeo y advirtieron de que no hay nada más injusto que privar a los niños del derecho a la educación, incluido los países afectados por conflictos bélicos.

Respecto a Bosnia-Herzegovina, en el foro, con unos 30 participantes, fueron criticadas las divisiones en el sistema escolar como un posible peligro para el futuro, porque potencia las diferencias.

Tras la guerra de 1992 a 1995, los tres pueblos constitutivos bosnios tienen cada uno sistemas de educación y escuelas propias.

Según datos presentados en el foro, 75 millones de niños en el mundo no tienen la oportunidad de ir al colegio, de ello 40 millones en las zonas de guerra, un problema que requiere solución para lograr los objetivos del milenio en la educación.

En Bosnia-Herzegovina, unos 6.000 niños (un 2 por ciento) no van a la escuela primaria por no haber sido matriculados o por haber interrumpido su educación.

"Con las autoridades locales, tratamos de identificar a los niños no abarcados por el sistema de educación. En 52 escuelas, de las 1.888 que hay en Bosnia-Herzegovina, está presente la segregación", advirtió la representante bosnia Fátima Smajlovic.

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Envíos 10057

Enviado - 09 junio 2009 :  23:42:15  Mostrar perfil  Responder con Cita
Éducation: les universités de Pristina et de Sarajevo pour une coopération «multiculturelle»

Birn, 26 mai 2009
Traduit par Jacqueline Dérens
Jeudi 28 mai 2009

Les universités de Pristina et de Sarajevo viennent de signer un accord de coopération pour créer un établissement «multiculturel» à Prizren, au Kosovo, pour que les toutes les communautés de la région puissent étudier ensemble.

L’université de Pristina vient de signer un accord de coopération avec l’université de Sarajevo pour créer un centre d’éducation multiculturel à Prizren au Kosovo.

Enver Hasani, recteur de l’université de Pristina et Faruk Caklovica, recteur de l’université de Sarajevo ont déclaré que le projet allait permettre aux communautés de Prizren, qu’elles soient turques, bosniaques ou albanaises d’étudier ensemble.

«Nous ferons des échanges entre nos étudiants ce qui nous amènera à créer des relations entre nos deux nations», a déclaré Faruk Caklovica après avoir signé l’accord. Enver Hasani, pour sa part, a déclaré que l’établissement qu’il dirige «croit dans les diversités culturelles et linguistiques». L’accord qui garantit aussi la reconnaissance mutuelle des diplômes a été signé avec la médiation de l’OSCE.

Prizren est une ville où vivent de nombreux Turcs, Bosniaques et Gorani.

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Envíos 10057

Enviado - 17 junio 2009 :  11:55:29  Mostrar perfil  Responder con Cita
Minorités en Bosnie-Herzégovine: «Connaissance + Compréhension = Respect»

De notre correspondante à Sarajevo, Vanessa Pfeiffer
Le Courrier de la Bosnie-Herzégovine
Mardi 9 juin 2009

Pour que la Bosnie-Herzégovine puisse un jour tourner la page de la guerre et devenir un État réellement viable, il est nécessaire que toutes les communautés du pays apprennent à se connaître et à vivre ensemble. Un constat simple mais qui reste utopique, au moins pour le moment. Afin de faire changer les mentalités, l’OSCE a développé un programme éducatif présentant la culture, le patrimoine et les traditions des différentes communautés de Bosnie. Le livret et son Cd-Rom ont été présentés lors d’une conférence le 18 mars 2009 à Sarajevo.

La situation dans les écoles bosniennes reste difficile, surtout dans des communes telles que Mostar, où les enfants étudient dans des classes séparées en fonction de leur origine. Et ce malgré les multiples actions entreprises par l’OSCE depuis la fin de la guerre [lien: http://www.oscebih.org/education/manuals.htm]. Léonard Valente, auteur du projet éducatif lancé par l’OSCE et professeur d’histoire à Sarajevo, souhaite donner l’occasion à tous les enfants de Bosnie-Herzégovine de mieux connaître «leur voisin» et de briser les stéréotypes qui existent encore. Dans ce livre, toutes les communautés du pays sont présentées par des chansons, des recettes, des légendes, des personnages célèbres, des symboles, etc. On y trouve aussi des exercices linguistiques.

Pour réaliser ce livre, Leonard Valente a constamment eu en tête la formule suivante: «connaissance + compréhension = respect». Celle-ci résume bien, selon lui, les enjeux de ce projet.

Des représentants d’associations de toutes les minorités nationales recensées sur le territoire bosnien ont contribué à ce projet. Par ailleurs, la participation active des enseignants bosniens, sur leur temps personnel, a permis d’aboutir à sa réalisation. Un livret de méthode et un CD-Rom sont également prévus pour les professeurs.

La conférence a été ouverte par Gary D. Robbins, chef de la mission de l’OSCE en Bosnie-Herzégovine, qui a rappelé qu’il existait 17 minorités nationales en Bosnie-Herzégovine [reconnues par la Loi sur la protection des minorités nationales adoptée en 2003, NdT] et qu’il était important d’intégrer ces enfants de différentes origines, dès leur plus jeune âge, à travers le système éducatif. S’agissant des Rroms, la minorité la plus en danger dans le pays selon Safet Halilovic', ministre des Droits de l’Homme et des Réfugiés, Gary D. Robbins a souligné que la publication de ce livret s’inscrivait notamment dans le volet «scolarisation» du Plan d’action destiné aux minorités rroms, adopté le 3 juillet 2008 par le Conseil des ministres bosniens, dans le cadre de la Décennie pour l’intégration des Rroms (2005-2015).

Quant à Knut Vollebaek, Haut commissaire pour les minorités nationales (HCNM), il a souligné que «l’éducation représente le meilleur outil pour éviter les conflits futurs», la problématique de ce projet étant la suivante: «Quels outils utiliser, dans un pays multiethnique comme la Bosnie-Herzégovine, pour promouvoir la tolérance?». Knut Vollebaek est revenu sur l’exemple de l’Irlande, qui a financé ce projet, pour montrer à quel point il est difficile d’atteindre cet objectif, qui représente un véritable défi!

La parole est aux représentants des minorités nationales

Pour un des représentants de la communauté juive de Bosnie-Herzégovine, cette conférence était «un moment historique» car «c’est la première fois qu’on parle de toutes les minorités ». Il a ajouté que «c’est une nouvelle page qui se tourne dans l’histoire de la Bosnie-Herzégovine», avant de lancer un appel à tous les représentants des minorités nationales présents à ce colloque pour qu’un nouveau projet soit réalisé en 2010. Il souhaite aussi que ce programme soit élargi à l’ensemble des citoyens bosniens, et plus seulement aux enfants.

Tout en manifestant son soutien à ce projet, Nedžad Jusic', président du Conseil national pour les minorités au Parlement de Bosnie-Herzégovine et président de l’association non-gouvernementale rrom de Tuzla Euro Rrom, pense que ce programme est un «petit et bon début», mais qu’il ne faut surtout pas en rester là. Une représentante de la communauté albanaise a clos la discussion en rappelant à l’auditoire que les Albanais ne «parviennent pas à trouver [leur] place parmi les peuples bosniaque, serbe et croate, étant donné que ces derniers ne s’entendent déjà pas entre eux!».

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Envíos 10057

Enviado - 14 septiembre 2009 :  00:06:23  Mostrar perfil  Responder con Cita
School segregation threat to long-term peace

Aida Cerkez-Robinson, Associated Press
San Francisco Chronicle
Sunday, August 30, 2009

Stolac, Bosnia - It's shortly after noon, and teenagers who were taught their capital is Zagreb, in neighboring Croatia, are streaming out of Stolac High School. In an hour, their classrooms will be filled with children who have learned that their capital is Sarajevo, Bosnia.

Fourteen years after Bosnia's 1992-95 war, youngsters from Muslim Bosniak and Roman Catholic Croat families attend the same schools, but are separated from each other and learn from different textbooks.

With the Bosnian Serbs already holed up in their own part of the country, critics say the Balkan nation's school system is one of the worst examples of segregation in Europe - one that's producing a generation ripe for manipulation by nationalists.

Tiny Bosnia is home to just 3.5 million people, yet its schools are governed by 14 ministries, many run by people who favor segregation. Vedran Zubic, a high school teacher in the capital, Sarajevo, sees the separation as a continuation of wartime nationalist rhetoric.

"We have a generation of young, intolerant, ethnically isolated and ethnically overfed pupils who are being used as weapons of nationalist politicians," he said.

The Stolac school is an example of Bosnia's postwar emphasis on "two schools under one roof."

It was designed by the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe as an urgent but temporary response to the problem of educating the children of parents who had ventured back to their prewar homes in towns subjected to ethnic cleansing.

During the war, Croats drove the majority Bosniak population out of Stolac, a southeastern town near the Croatian border. Those who returned found the town's schools were using Croatian history books.

Bosnian Croats are taught they are members of the Croatian nation living in a Croat province in Bosnia. Almost 99 percent of Bosnian Croats have Croatian passports and vote in Croatian elections.

Before the former Yugoslavia crumbled in the 1990s, Serbs, Croats and Bosniaks attended school together and studied from uniform textbooks distributed by the communist government.

But the war opened a chasm between Bosnia's ethnic groups, and the peace accords that followed split the country into a Serb mini-state and a Bosniak-Croat federation. Separation since has become a way of life.

Unwilling to have their kids learn the history and language of a neighboring country, Bosniak returnees formed a school for their children in a private home where Bosnian language and history was taught.

Predominantly Muslim Bosniaks, for example have been taught in geography books that "Muslims don't attack sacred objects, unlike others," while mainly Catholic Croats learned that "Muslims are an ethnic group and not a religion."

The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe's mission in Bosnia - overseeing education - pressed Croat school managers to allow the Bosniaks to use the school building at least in the afternoon. The first day, Croat school staff piled up chairs and desks to build a barrier separating the children.

The U.S. Embassy in Bosnia even invited Martin Luther King III, the son of slain civil rights leader Martin Luther King, Jr., to talk to teachers and students about human rights and segregation.

But in Stolac, King found, his father's famous dream remains just that: a dream. As he spoke, Croat students sat up front; Bosniaks took the chairs in the back.

Merima Tabakovic, a 17-year-old Bosniak student, points to flagrant examples of discrimination in Stolac's classrooms: She said Bosniak students cannot enter the school before the afternoon, even if it's raining.

"In the winter, they switch off the heating as soon as the second shift starts," added another student, Azra Isakovic. And students rarely broach the issue of segregation with one another.

"It's taboo," she said.

Claude Kiffer, who runs the organization's education department, said it was supposed to be a temporary solution until a new, countrywide curriculum was adopted. But that never happened, and the Stolac model spread throughout the part of the country shared by Bosniaks and Croats. Today, more than 50 schools operate like this.

Now, nongovernmental organizations and the Organization of Security and Cooperation in Europe are urging an end to segregation. Education, they contend, should have been a part of the Dayton peace agreement that ended the war, but in 1995, few understood the damage that segregated schools could inflict in the long run.

"The absence of genuine education reform designed to bring future citizens together undermines all other reforms so far," Kiffer said. The system, he added, is producing "three sets of citizens who do not know anything about the others, have no intercultural skills."

He warns: "In the longer term, this may contribute to the breakup of the country."

David Skinner of Save the Children says about half of all peace pacts worldwide fail after five years because neglected school systems don't produce citizens with critical thinking skills. The nonprofit group recently organized an international conference in Sarajevo where participants urged the United Nations to include education in future peace agreements.

That way, Skinner said, "we can start reducing the number of peace agreements that fail."

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Enviado - 07 noviembre 2009 :  20:39:34  Mostrar perfil  Responder con Cita
Les jeunes Rroms de Bosnie-Herzégovine veulent accéder à l’éducation, malgré les préjugés

Par Zvjezdan Živkovic'
Radio Slobodna Evropa, 25 octobre 2009
Traduit par Eléonore Loué-Feichter Jusufovic'
Mercredi 28 octobre 2009

Les Rroms représentent la minorité la plus nombreuse de Bosnie-Herzégovine. Mais peu de jeunes Rroms poursuivent des écoles secondaires et seuls quelques-uns d’entre eux parviennent à poursuivre leur cursus au sein des universités. Il est vrai qu’ils ont souvent besoin de faire davantage d’efforts que les autres étudiants car il sont souvent confrontés aux préjugés.

Jasmin Hasanovic', 25 ans, jeune Rrom de Sarajevo, est étudiant à la Faculté de criminologie. Il affirme que c’est son désir de devenir agent de police qui l’a encouragé à s’inscrire à la Faculté: «Mon souhait a toujours été de devenir footballeur ou policier. J’ai suivi ce but et je voudrais également montrer que même en tant que Rrom on peut réussir. Je le fais non seulement pour ma famille mais aussi pour prouver à mes amis Rroms que l’on peut prétendre à une vie meilleure».

Jasmin est présenté comme exemple et il a démontré à ses proches qu’il était important de diffuser la connaissance: «mes frères et soeurs ont achevé l’enseignement primaire et secondaire. Une de mes soeurs s’est mariée et mon autre soeur a décidé de s’inscrire à l’université l’année prochaine. Beaucoup de mes amis sont analphabètes mais ont commencé à étudier en prenant des cours du soir».

Un autre exemple est celui de Dragana Seferovic'. À 19 ans, elle a terminé l’école secondaire de textile et est actuellement inscrite à l’école secondaire d’art. Dragana a sa propre vision de l’avenir: «Mon souhait est de transmettre mes connaissances aux jeunes générations, c’est pourquoi j’aimerais être professeur de danse. En Bosnie et en Croatie, il n’existe pas d’école supérieure de danse alors j’ai décidé que je tenterai ma chance en Allemagne».

Le poids des préjugés

Les exemples ci-dessus montrent qu’il existe tout de même un certain nombre de jeunes Rroms qui, à l’issue de l’école secondaire, s’inscrivent à l’université. Cependant, le problème est que la plupart d’entre eux ne se déclarent pas comme Rroms car ils craignent que la société ne leur fasse subir le poids des préjugés.

Selon Sanela Bešic', coordinatrice du centre d’information rrom de Sarajevo, «il existe de nombreuses raisons pour lesquelles la plupart des jeunes Rroms ne se déclarent pas comme tels: la honte, ou même la crainte que la société ne les perçoive de manière différente. Il y a quelques jours, j’ai eu l’occasion de discuter avec un élève du secondaire. Il m’a raconté la fois où il a du définir son appartenance ethnique: ’ Tout, mais pas en public. Imaginez que mes camarades sachent que je suis Rrom? Je serais perçu de manière négative. Je ne sais pas s’ils voudraient encore me cotoyer’».

L’association «L’éducation construit la Bosnie-Herzégovine» est un organisme à but non-lucratif qui vise à fournir un soutien moral et matériel à tous les jeunes citoyens du pays. Le programme de bourses est également destiné aux jeunes Rroms, explique le directeur du projet, Mehmed Agic': «Jusqu’à présent, ces bourses ont été accordées à 335 élèves rroms. Cette année encore, nous comptons répondre aux besoins éducatifs des jeunes Rroms de Bosnie-Herzégovine, et au moins 115 d’entre eux vont profiter de nos aides.

Les plus nombreux et les plus vulnérables

De nombreuses études montrent que les Rroms, minorité nationale la plus nombreuse en Bosnie-Herzégovine, sont également les plus vulnérables socialement. Par conséquent, le gouvernement a entrepris des actions de planification spécifique. Dans un mois, le ministère des Droits de la Personne et des Réfugiés commencera son plan d’action afin de recenser les besoins des populations rroms, dans les domaines de l’emploi, du logement, de la protection sociale et de l’éducation.

Saliha Djuderija, ministre-adjoint aux Droits de la personne et aux réfugiés explique que «le début du processus est prévu pour le 23 novembre. Nous avons fixé les objectifs, défini les cadres juridiques actuels, afin d’aider dorénavant nos partenaires à mettre en oeuvre des programmes au sein de la communauté locale, selon les règles définies».

Avec l’aide de l’État et des ONG, le nombre de jeunes Rroms inscrits à l’Université va certainement augmenter dans les prochaines années.

Selon Dragana Seferovic', le plus important reste que les Rroms se libèrent des préjugés qu’ils ont envers eux-mêmes et qu’ils aient un objectif clair dans la vie: «Ils ont besoin de trouver un but dans la vie et de le poursuivre. Si tu fais face à des difficultés, il suffit de ne pas perdre de vue ton objectif».

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